Lewis & Clark: A Fifth Grade Expedition
Submitted by Ken Rohrer
Integrated Thematic Unit (Art and U.S. History) for 5th graders
Lewis and Clark Lessons
This unit incorporates integrated thematic instruction. A great way to justify an art program is to integrate the arts into other subjects- especially subjects that are in your state's state standardized test. In this unit, Indiana standards are addressed.
You can download the Word version of this file here.
Access the Indiana Standards addressed on this page.
You can access the Standards Tapestry page here. This page includes additional documents, assessments and plans.
Thomas Jefferson's message to Congress supporting the
need for the Lewis and Clark expedition [Actual document]
Summation of Unit
Students will first examine original documents and transcripts relating to the Lewis & Clark expedition. The focus will be on the changing relationship with Native American Nations and settlers, early American trade and business, art, geography, exploration and survival techniques of early Americans. Students will proofread the text and write grammatical corrections on lined paper. The Unit will begin with Thomas Jefferson’s message to Congress regarding the Lewis & Clark expedition (See images above).
A student or students will dress up like Thomas Jefferson and other people of the early 1800’s. (See this dress-up art lesson, for example) The student(s) will read the transcript as given to Congress. Students in the classroom will play characters both of notoriety and of Congress. A few students will dress in traditional Chickasaws tribal clothing. Students will estimate the number and types of supplies and rations that were carried on the journey. Their list will be compared to the actual list of supplies and rations. Rations that were given the expedition team would be available to students to sample. Students will role play Lewis & Clark approaching the Chickasaws, Shoshonis, Kansas, Mandan, Minitari the Sioux, Gross Vaunter and the Omaha Indian Nations, and attempt to convince the natives to give up hunting and to get into agriculture, "domestic manufacture" and trading.
The purpose of course was to convince them to give up large portions of their land for settlers in a peaceful way. A market economy including private ownership, markets, competition, rule of law, and consumer sovereignty will be examined. How did the Indians transition from hunting to agriculture and trade. A lesson on the many Indiana Nations that were encountered during the expedition will be given. Differences in culture and dress will be examined. American geography would be explored along the route that the expedition followed. Students will choose books to read from or about the period.
Thomas Jefferson orders the expedition to begin.
Optional Set #1
Prior to the beginning of the day, arrange student desks on one side of the room allowing very little room to navigate. In the middle of the classroom, place a toy house (Barbie house, for example- you can also make one from the instructions found at http://www.ehow.com/how_9101_build-barbie-house.html). Of course you never want to call it a Barbie house or the boys in your class will not want to do this. As students come in, they will no doubt be confused and/or disturbed by the lack of space around the desks. Tell the students as they walk in the door in the morning that this will be the arrangement through the remainder of the year (This won't really be the case, of course). Shortly after you take attendance and the lunch count, ask the following questions:
1) So what do you think of the room arrangement?
2) Why don't you like it?
3) Don't I have a right to put that house anywhere I want?
After a class discussion, you can introduce the lesson like
"You will be happy to know that we aren't really moving our desks here for the rest of the year. I did this so you might know what it was like for Native Americans when settlers cleared out trees and built homes on their land without permission. Most of the early settlers built their homes on Indian land without asking permission. They also cut down trees and built roads through Indian hunting grounds. The Indians were angry for a very good reason."
For the next week or two we will be explorers, settlers and Indians. We will learn what it was like in the early days of our country. We will go on an expedition and eat the same food the early settlers ate. We will role play real characters from the Lewis & Clark expedition in the early 1800's.
Optional Set #2
At the beginning of the unit ask:
"What would it be like to be the first settlers in America? Where would you live if you were one of the first settlers? What would you do when you encountered Native Americans? Would you ask permission from the local Indians before you built your home? What if they told you can't build on their land? How would you survive? For the next few weeks we will be exploring America as early Americans such as Lewis & Clark did in the early 1800's. We will be tasting their food, becoming characters of the period, reading documents written by the original people, writing diaries of our own expeditions, and work in trades that were common in the early 1800's."
Students will choose books or visit web sites of Lewis & Clark (at the end of this document). Students will read the text of Thomas Jefferson’s speech to Congress and the diaries of Lewis & Clark. Students will record grammatical errors from these documents on a blank sheet of lined paper. Students may create their own diaries from either their daily lives or create fictional diaries by putting themselves in the character’s places. Resources listed at the end of this document may be used for additional facts and knowledge.
Students may choose (or be chosen for) roles in a classroom-wide play. Roles may include:
At least one student will read directly from Jefferson's Message to Congress to the class dressed in clothing from the period. The speech is long so you may want to shorten the message or have students take turns with each paragraph.
Collaborative learning groups may be formed and each group appoints a writer, two actors and a student to keep the group on task. This student will also visit other collaborative groups and then report back to the original group. Each collaborative group is assigned a segment of the expedition. The groups will write their own scripts for a classroom play. The group will rehearse the skits. Scripts may be turned in as an assignment.
Following the creation of the scripts, students may begin practicing for their plays. Costumes can be made and/or created with clothes at home. You can find examples of women's and men's clothing on the internet. Student groups may take turns performing one day. Skits may also be performed from the diary documents.
There are many words in the address and diaries that may be unfamiliar to students. Following is a possible list of vocabulary words to include prior to reading the documents.
Residing- Living at a certain location
Diminution- the act of decreasing or reducing something
Insomuch- to such an extent or degree
Perturbations- an unhappy and worried mental state
Obstinately- stubbornly persistent in wrongdoing
Disposition- One's usual mood; temperament
Expedient- Something that is a means to an end
Domestic- Produced in or indigenous to one’s own country
Soliciting- Seeking to obtain by persuasion, entreaty, or formal application
Alienation- The act of transferring property or title to it to another
Disclosure- The act or process of revealing or uncovering
Enterprise- Willingness to undertake new ventures or business
Peltry- Undressed pelts (furs) in a group
Latitude- A range of values or conditions
Portages- The carrying of boats and supplies overland between two waterways or around an obstacle to navigation
Accoutrements- Military equipment other than uniforms and weapons
Apparatus- A group of materials or devices used for a particular purpose
Traversing- To move to and fro over; cross and recross
Incidentally- Apart from the main subject
Dominions- A territory or sphere of influence
Sanction- Authoritative permission or approval that makes a course of action valid
Hulled- Removing the dry outer covering of a fruit, seed, husk or nut
Natchies (Natchez) - The Natchez Indians were successful farmers, growing corn, beans, and squash
Parchmeal- A kind of flour
Perogue (pirogue) - A canoe made from a hollowed tree trunk
Lyed Corn- Corn that has been softened by the acid produced from wood ash. See a Lyed Corn recipe [Archive]
Deassentary (Dysentery) - A disease involving the inflammation of the lining of the large intestines. The inflammation causes stomach pains and diarrhea.
Osage Plumb (orange) - Osage Orange trees planted as living fences or hedges along the boundaries of farms. Indians used the wood for war-clubs and bows, a custom that gave rise to one of its common names "Bow-Wood."
Hasel (Hazel) Grapes - The fruit from a Hazel Tree.
Bloodletting- A harmful practice by physicians in the 1800's that led to many deaths.
Transcript of Jefferson's Secret Message to Congress Regarding the Lewis & Clark Expedition (1803)
Gentlemen of the Senate, and of the House of Representatives:
"As the continuance of the act for establishing trading houses with the Indian tribes will be under the consideration of the Legislature at its present session, I think it my duty to communicate the views which have guided me in the execution of that act, in order that you may decide on the policy of continuing it, in the present or any other form, or discontinue it altogether, if that shall, on the whole, seem most for the public good."
"The Indian tribes residing within the limits of the United States, have, for a considerable time, been growing more and more uneasy at the constant diminution of the territory they occupy, although effected by their own voluntary sales: and the policy has long been gaining strength with them, of refusing absolutely all further sale, on any conditions; insomuch that, at this time, it hazards their friendship, and excites dangerous jealousies and perturbations in their minds to make any overture for the purchase of the smallest portions of their land. A very few tribes only are not yet obstinately in these dispositions. In order peaceably to counteract this policy of theirs, and to provide an extension of territory which the rapid increase of our numbers will call for, two measures are deemed expedient. First: to encourage them to abandon hunting, to apply to the raising stock, to agriculture and domestic manufacture, and thereby prove to themselves that less land and labor will maintain them in this, better than in their former mode of living. The extensive forests necessary in the hunting life, will then become useless, and they will see advantage in exchanging them for the means of improving their farms, and of increasing their domestic comforts. Secondly: to multiply trading houses among them, and place within their reach those things which will contribute more to their domestic comfort, than the possession of extensive, but uncultivated wilds. Experience and reflection will develop to them the wisdom of exchanging what they can spare and we want, for what we can spare and they want. In leading them to agriculture, to manufactures, and civilization; in bringing together their and our settlements, and in preparing them ultimately to participate in the benefits of our governments, I trust and believe we are acting for their greatest good. At these trading houses we have pursued the principles of the act of Congress, which directs that the commerce shall be carried on liberally, and requires only that the capital stock shall not be diminished. We consequently undersell private traders, foreign and domestic, drive them from the competition; and thus, with the good will of the Indians, rid ourselves of a description of men who are constantly endeavoring to excite in the Indian mind suspicions, fears, and irritations towards us. A letter now enclosed, shows the effect of our competition on the operations of the traders, while the Indians, perceiving the advantage of purchasing from us, are soliciting generally, our establishment of trading houses among them. In one quarter this is particularly interesting. The Legislature, reflecting on the late occurrences on the Mississippi, must be sensible how desirable it is to possess a respectable breadth of country on that river, from our Southern limit to the Illinois at least; so that we may present as firm a front on that as on our Eastern border. We possess what is below the Yazoo, and can probably acquire a certain breadth from the Illinois and Wabash to the Ohio; but between the Ohio and Yazoo, the country all belongs to the Chickasaws, the most friendly tribe within our limits, but the most decided against the alienation of lands. The portion of their country most important for us is exactly that which they do not inhabit. Their settlements are not on the Mississippi, but in the interior country. They have lately shown a desire to become agricultural; and this leads to the desire of buying implements and comforts. In the strengthening and gratifying of these wants, I see the only prospect of planting on the Mississippi itself, the means of its own safety. Duty has required me to submit these views to the judgment of the Legislature; but as their disclosure might embarrass and defeat their effect, they are committed to the special confidence of the two Houses."
"While the extension of the public commerce among the Indian tribes, may deprive of that source of profit such of our citizens as are engaged in it, it might be worthy the attention of Congress, in their care of individual as well as of the general interest, to point, in another direction, the enterprise of these citizens, as profitably for themselves, and more usefully for the public. The river Missouri, and the Indians inhabiting it, are not as well known as is rendered desirable by their connexion with the Mississippi, and consequently with us. It is, however, understood, that the country on that river is inhabited by numerous tribes, who furnish great supplies of furs and peltry to the trade of another nation, carried on in a high latitude, through an infinite number of portages and lakes, shut up by ice through a long season. The commerce on that line could bear no competition with that of the Missouri, traversing a moderate climate, offering according to the best accounts, a continued navigation from its source, and possibly with a single portage, from the Western Ocean, and finding to the Atlantic a choice of channels through the Illinois or Wabash, the lakes and Hudson, through the Ohio and Susquehanna, or Potomac or James rivers, and through the Tennessee and Savannah, rivers. An intelligent officer, with ten or twelve chosen men, fit for the enterprise, and willing to undertake it, taken from our posts, where they may be spared without inconvenience, might explore the whole line, even to the Western Ocean, have conferences with the natives on the subject of commercial intercourse, get admission among them for our traders, as others are admitted, agree on convenient deposits for an interchange of articles, and return with the information acquired, in the course of two summers. Their arms and accoutrements, some instruments of observation, and light and cheap presents for the Indians, would be all the apparatus they could carry, and with an expectation of a soldier's portion of land on their return, would constitute the whole expense. Their pay would be going on, whether here or there. While other civilized nations have encountered great expense to enlarge the boundaries of knowledge by undertaking voyages of discovery, and for other literary purposes, in various parts and directions, our nation seems to owe to the same object, as well as to its own interests, to explore this, the only line of easy communication across the continent, and so directly traversing our own part of it. The interests of commerce place the principal object within the constitutional powers and care of Congress, and that it should incidentally advance the geographical knowledge of our own continent, cannot be but an additional gratification. The nation claiming the territory, regarding this as a literary pursuit, which is in the habit of permitting within its dominions, would not be disposed to view it with jealousy, even if the expiring state of its interests there did not render it a matter of indifference. The appropriation of two thousand five hundred dollars, "for the purpose of extending the external commerce of the United States," while understood and considered by the Executive as giving the legislative sanction, would cover the undertaking from notice, and prevent the obstructions which interested individuals might otherwise previously prepare in its way."
Lewis and Clark wrote of their travel and experiences in several journals. These journals are currently at the American Philosophical Society. Following are some of their entries. Items in parenthesis are summations of entries. Grammatical errors are included and they are numerous in number!
March 09, 1804
(Louisiana was officially transferred from Spain to France at St. Louis, with Lewis as the chief witness)
March 10, 1804
(Louisiana was officially transferred from France to the United States at St. Louis.)
April 01, 1804
(Orderly book lists the permanent detachment "destined for the Expedition through the interior of the Continent of North America")
(Three squads formed, each headed
by a sergeant who was elected by the men: Pryor, Floyd,
May 04, 1804
("Memorandum of Articles in readiness for the Voyage" lists what the food they're taking, how much they weigh, etc.)
Bags of Parchmeal of 2 bus: each about
do Common Do
do Corn Hulled do do
half Barrels of flour (Gross 3900 w) do
Bags of do (Gross 3900 w) do
do of Biscuit (Gross 650 w) do
Barrels do (Gross 650 w) do
Barrels of Salt of 2 bus: each " (870) do
Kegs of Pork (gross 4500) do
Boxes of Candles 70 lb and about 50 lb
(one of which has 50 lb of soap [)] do
Bag of Candle-wick do
do Beens & 1 of Pees
do Sugar do
Keg of Hogs Lard do
Barrels of Corn hulled (650) do
do of meal (170) do
lb Grees (grease)
do Natchies Corn Huled
Bales of Indian goods
2 Capts. 4 Sergeants, 3 Intptrs., 22 Amns. 9 or 10 French, & York also 1 Corpl. & Six in a perogue with 40 Days provisions for the party as far as the provisions last.
August 31st 1803
Left Pittsburgh this day at 11 ock with a party of 11 hands 7 of which are soldiers, a pilot and three young men on trial they having proposed to go with me throughout the voyage. Arrived at Bruno's Island 3 miles below halted a few minutes. Went on shore and being invited on by some of the gentlemen present to try my airgun (at left) which I had purchased brought it on shore charged it and fired myself seven times fifty five yards with pretty good success; after which a Mr. Blaze Cenas being unacquainted with the management of the gun suffered her to discharge herself accidentally the ball passed through the hat of a woman about 40 yards distance cutting her temple about the fourth of the diameter of the ball; she fell instantly and the blood gushing from her temple we were all in the greatest consternation supposed she was dead by [but] in a minute she revived to our enespressable (sic) satisfaction, and by examination we found the wound by no means mortal or even dangerous; called the hands aboard and proceeded to a ripple of McKee's rock* where we were obliged to get out all hands and lift the boat over about thirty yards; the river is extremely low; said to be more so than it has been known for four years; about [blank] we passed another ripple near [erasure] Past another bear or ripple with more difficulty than either of the others halted for the night much fatigued after labouring with my men all day-- the water being sufficiently temperate was much in our favor; gave my men some whiskey and retired to rest at 8 OClock -- a description of this place to [follow?]
May 23, 1804
We Set out early ran on a Log and detain one hour... Sent out two hunters, one Killed a deer.
(They went 9 miles this day; passed the mouth of the Femme Osage River, where Daniel Boone was living at the time; he had taken a Spanish land grant in 1798. He died along the Femme Osage on Sept. 26, 1820.)
May 26, 1804
Detachment Orders. May 26th 1804.
...The day after tomorrow lyed corn and grece will be issued to the party, the next day Poark and flour, and the day following indian meal and poark; and in conformity to that rotiene provisions will continue to be issued to the party untill further orders. should any of the messes prefer indian meal to flour they may receive it accordingly -- no poarch is to be issued when we have fresh meat on hand...
May 30, 1804
Rained all last night. Set out at 6 oClock after a heavy shower, and proceeded on... a heavy wind accompanied with rain & hail we made 14 miles to day, the river Continud to rise, the Country on each Side appear full of Water.
June 07, 1804
(They find more Indian paintings and a den of rattlesnakes; the hunters bring in three bears this evening)
June 08, 1804
meet three more men, from the River of the Sioux above the Omahas who have been hunting 12 months, have about $900 in pelts and furs, but were out of provisions and powder.)
June 10, 1804
... Those Praries are not like those, or a number of those E. of the Mississippi void of every thing except grass, they aboud with Hasel Grapes & a wild plumb of a Supeior [size &] quallity, Called the Osages Plumb Grows on a bush the hight of a Hasel... and hang in great quantities on the bushes I saw great numbers of Deer in the Praries, the evening is Cloudy, our party in high Spirits.
June 12, 1804
(They meet two boats, one loaded with pelts and the other with grease; Mr. Dorion is in one, and they convince him to head back upriver with them. They purchase 300 pounds of grease. Dorion gives them information about the Indian tribes.)
June 13, 1804
... Capt. Lewis and myself walked to the hill, from the top of which we had a butifull prospect of Serounding countrey, in the open Prairie we caught a raccoon, our hunter brought in a Bear & Deer, we took some Lunar observations
June 17, 1804
... The party is much aflicted with Boils, and Several have the Deassentary, which I contribute to the water [which is muddy ]... The Ticks & Musquiters are verry troublesome.
June 26, 1804
...We Killed a large rattle Snake, Sunning himself in the bank, passed a bad Sand bar, where our tow rope broke twice, & with great exertions, we rowed round it and came to & camped, in the Point above the Kansas River I observed a great number of Parrot queets this evening, our Party killed Several  Deer today
June 28, 1804
(They repair the perogue, clean out the boat, sun their powder and woolens, examine their goods, weigh the specific gravity of the two rivers, speculate on the headwaters of the Kansas, and write about the decline of the Kansas Indians)
...I am told they are a fierce & warlike people, being badly Supplied with fire arms, become easily conquered by the Aiauway & Saukees who are better furnished with those materials of War, This Nation is now out in the Plains hunting the Buffalow... the high lands come to the river Kansas on the upper Side at about a mile, full in views, and a butifull place for a fort, good landing-place, the waters of the Kansas is verry disigreeably tasted to me.
July 04, 1804
Ussered in the day by a discharge of one shot from our Bow piece, proceeded on... Jos. Fields got bit by a Snake, which was quickly doctered with Bark by Cap Lewis... Passed a Creek 12 yds wide... as this Creek has no name, and this being the 4th of July the day of the independance of the U.S. call it 4th of July 1804 Creek... we closed the [day] by a Descharge from our bow piece, an extra Gill of whiskey.
July 07, 1804
...those Praries on the river has verry much the appearance of farms from the river Divided by narrow Strips of woodland... one man verry sick, Struck with the Sun, Capt. Lewis bled him* & gave Niter which has revived him much
July 08, 1804
(Orderly Book) Detachment Orders. Nadawa Island July 8th 1804
(Thompson, Warner, Collins named as cooks for the three messes, exempted from guard duty and pitching tents, collecting firewood, etc.)
July 12, 1804
The Commanding officers, Capts. M. Lewis & W. Clark constituted themselves a Court Martial for the trial of such prisoners as are Guilty of Capatal Crimes, and under the rules and articles of War punishable by DEATH.
Alexander Willard was brought forward Charged with "Lying down and Sleeping on his post" whilst a Sentinal...
To this Charge the prisoner pleads Guilty of Lying Down, and Not Guilty, of Going to Sleep
The Court after Duly Considering the evidence aduced, are of oppinion that the Prisoner Alexdr. Willard is guilty of every part of the Charge exhibited against him. it being a breach of the rules and articles of War do Sentience him to receive One hundred lashes, on his bear back, at four different times in equal proportion. and Order that the punishment Commence this evening at Sunset, and Continue to be inflicted every evening untill Completed
July 21, 1804
(They reach the Platte River's mouth)
...This Great river being much more rapid than the Missourie forces its Current against the opposit Shore. The Current of this river comes with great velosity roleing its Sands into the Missouri, filling up its Bead & Compelling it to incroach on the S [North] Shore. we found great dificuelty in passing around the Sand at the Mouth of this River. Capt. Lewis and Myself with 6 men in a perogue went up this Great river Platt about 2 Miles, found the Current verry rapid roleing over Sands, passing through different Channels none of them more than five or Six feet deep, about 900 yards Wide at the Mouth... The Indians pass this river in Skin Boats which is flat and will not turn over...
July 22, 1804
(they move upstream about 10 miles)
...This being a good Situation and much nearer the Otteaus town than the Mouth of the Platt, we Concluded to delay at this place a fiew days and Send for Some of the Chiefs of that nation, to let them know of the Change of Government the wishes of our government to Cultivate friendship with them, the Objects of our journy and to present them with a flag and Some Small presents.
Saturday October 27th - We had pleasant weather, and we set out early, and proceeded on our Voyage. At 7 o'Clock A. M. we came to the first Village of the Mandan nation of Indians, This Village contain'd between 50 & 60 lodges, built in the same form that the Rick A Ree (Arikara) Indian lodges were built, and is situated on a high plain, which lay on the South side of the Mesouri River, The Mandan Indians are in general Stout, well made Men; and they are the lighest coulour'd Indians I ever saw, We stopped at this Village about 2 hours, and then proceeded on, about one Mile above the 2nd Village of the Mandans, and encamped on a lage Sand beach, near a bottom covered with Timber, The officers had encamped here in Order to hold a Council with the Mandan nation & the Gross Vaunter & Water Soix nation of Indians who all reside near each other, and are friendly to one another, These Indians do not bury their deceas'd as the other nations living on the Mesouri do, The manner in which they treat them, is by placing them on a high Scaffold, wrapped up in Buffalo Robes, we saw Several of their deceased placed on Scaffolds, and was inform'd of it being their custom by the Interpreters among us.-- It was about 11 o'Clock A. M., when we arrived at this place, the distance from where we enter'd the Mouth of the Mesouri River being 1,610 Miles.--
September 23, 1806
The tattered Corps of Discovery arrived at St. Louis and "received a harty welcome from it's inhabitants."
It had been a great expedition. Jefferson's explorers had covered 8,000 miles of territory over a period of 2 years, 4 months, and 9 days. Its records contributed important new information concerning the land, its natural resources, and its native peoples. Lewis and Clark learned that the surprising width of the Rocky Mountain chain effectively destroyed Jefferson's hoped-for easy connection between the Missouri and Columbia River systems. This finding was the expedition's single most important geographical discovery, resulting in a route over South Pass (Wyoming) during later follow-up trips westward by fur traders and other explorers. There had been plenty of difficulties, but Lewis and Clark were as firm friends as when they started. Congress rewarded the officers and men of the military enterprise, including Toussaint Charbonneau, with grants of land.
The Expedition leaves for the Pacific coast
This lesson will focus on preparing and gathering supplies for the trip. Note the provisions supplied in the May 4, 1804 entry of the Lewis & Clark diary. Students will once again meet in their cooperative groups and together will create a list of what they feel is necessary for the trip. Once they have their list completed, they compare their own list to the real one mentioned above. Students may adjust their list as they see fit after viewing the real list. Questions for the class could be "What items did you feel were very important to bring on your journey? Why or why not?" "What items were you surprised to see on the list? Why do you think they needed grease and hog lard?"Most, if not all these items will be brought in the classroom. Prepare dishes using these items. You may also prepare other dishes from that period. Log onto:
Lewis & Clark met up with the Chickasaws, Shoshonis, Kansas, Mandan, Minitari, the Sioux, and the Omahas and others during their journey. In this lesson, students will learn Indian customs and art. The Indian Removal Act will also be examined. Using the Native American Clothing link, students can create clothing out of art materials or, if they are good at sewing, make their own clothing.
"In ancient times, Chickasaws placed great importance and meaning on those locations defined as important by history and tribal religion. The great migration legend describing how the tribe moved from the "place of the setting
sun" to the east as ordained by Ababinili (God) was central in explaining the importance of the homelands. One can only imagine the sorrow experienced by our ancestors when it was determined that they would have to be "removed" from their sacred home."
"The years from 1803 to 1860 were critical to the survival of the Shoshoni (Snake) Nation. During this period, trappers, emigrants, and Mormon settlers came into southwestern Wyoming. The Shoshoni traded successfully with all three groups. More importantly, largely because of the Shoshoni's successful foreign policies, none would remain permanently. With the dual goal of enriching themselves economically and saving their homelands, the Shoshoni became shrewd negotiators in an international competition designed to deprive them of their lands. Ultimately they retained at least part of their traditional land and today proudly claim they were never removed from their homes in the "Shining Mountains." [http://www.wwcc.wy.edu/wyo_hist/shoshoni1.htm - Archive]
"The men wore a blue or red breechcloth with a belt, deerskin leggings, moccasins with no ornamentation, and sometimes a blanket over the upper part of the body. Shells, beads, or metal ornaments were attached to the rim of the ear, sometimes to great profusion, and long slender hair pipes were common. Kaw men shaved their heads, leaving only the scalp lock uncut. Sometimes the edge of the lock was colored with vermilion, or an eagle feather was inserted. On top of the head a roach (headdress) might be worn, made of deer tail, dyed red and parted longitudinally by a silver spreader."
"The Mandan had created a focal point of trade on the Missouri River. All of the plains tribes came to barter for agricultural good and products. Called the "Marketplace of the Central Plains", the Mandan established what was to be the forerunner of trading posts that came later to the area."
"Sioux, important confederacy of North American tribes of the Siouan language family and of the Plains culture area. The Ojibwa word for the group, rendered into French by early explorers and traders as Nadouessioux, was shortened to Sioux and passed into English. The Sioux generally call themselves Lakota or Dakota, meaning "allies." The seven tribes fall into three major divisions: the sedentary and agricultural Santee; the Nakota; and the warrior and buffalo-hunter Teton."
"After their separation from the Crow, with whom they were united before the historic period, they occupied several agricultural villages on the upper Missouri River in North Dakota and were in close alliance with the occupants of other villages, the Arikara and the Mandan. The Hidatsa villages, with circular earth lodges, were enclosed by an earthen wall. Among other Hidatsa traits were the cultivation of corn and an annual organized buffalo hunt. They had a complex social organization and elaborate ceremonies, including the sun dance."
"Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America, in Congress assembled, That it shall and may be lawful for the President of the United States to cause so much of any territory belonging to the United States, west of the river Mississippi, not included in any state or organized territory, and to which the Indian title has been extinguished, as he may judge necessary, to be divided into a suitable number of districts, for the reception of such tribes or nations of Indians as may choose to exchange the lands where they now reside, and remove there; and to cause each of said districts to be so described by natural or artificial marks, as to be easily distinguished from every other."
This proclamation lead to the "Trail of Tears" where thousands of Native Americans lost their lives while walking hundreds of miles through a rough winter.
Study Indian and Western art:
This part of the unit is spent in role play, creating Indian art, and wearing Indian clothing that they create. There are several web sites on the internet that have examples of Indian clothing of the period.
When you call and schedule a visit for your class, their Education Dept. will ask if you would like to come and preview the museum. Teachers enjoy seeing the new changes in the galleries before bringing the entire class. You can pick the day and time to fit your schedule and use the pass for free admission. (317) 636-9378, ext. 150
You can view a sample rubric for this lesson here.
Thomas Jefferson's standards for record-keeping, mapmaking and diplomatic contacts help set up the pattern for an 80-year series of Army treks that helped open the emerging nation's final frontier.
Jefferson "writes the Declaration of Independence, our national birth certificate... and in a sense invents the American West" with his exploration charter, said historian James Ronda during a recent tour of "Beyond Lewis and Clark: The Army Explores the West."
"12 OClk. today with our papers and baggage. In obedience to your orders we have penetrated the Continent of North America to the Pacific Ocean and sufficiently explored the interior of the country to affirm with confidence that we have discovered the most practicable rout which dose exist across the continent by means of the navigable branches of the Missouri and Columbia Rivers." -Meriwether Lewis, Capt. 1st U.S. Regt. Infty. Septemeber 23, 1806