Submitted by: Catherine Kerch – Holy Family Catholic Academy, Honolulu, Hawaii
Grade Level: 5 - 8th
TIMEFRAME: This is a 12-week course that meets twice a week for 90 minutes per grade level.
(Lessons can be adapted to fit your schedule. Cathy's student did all of these projects)
Lesson Summary from Cathy:
"The first lesson was based on recreating Hawaiian Petroglyphs (See Southwest Petroglyphs lesson). I began the lesson by showing a PowerPoint of Hawaiian Petroglyphs found on the island of Hawaii. I explained that the Hawaiian Petroglyphs are similar to the cave art found in France, Australia and North America. I then further explained to the students that petroglyphs are the first form of written language by the ancient Hawaiians however the meaning and translations have long been lost.
After further discussions on what the petroglyphs represented I had the students sketch their own version of a Hawaiian petroglyph. They were instructed to create a petroglyph that symbolized who they are. They were to include modern symbols that represented them, e.g. sports, hobbies, etc. Then they were given a recipe for mixing a simulated lava foundation (recipe to come). When the foundation dried they were to transfer their sketched petroglyph onto to their lava. The whole activity took three days and results are terrific."
"Their next activity was Kapa making and block printing. I took the students to the Bishop Museum for a Kapa Demonstration and then when we come back to class we will shortcut the process and create Kapa Paper from a mixture of mulberry pulp, shredded brown bag, and newspaper. The fibers are buzzed in a food processor then added to the paper making trays with water.
The students go through the basic paper making process but when they squeeze the water from the screen they will have to also lay it out to beat with a bamboo stick like the ancient Hawaiians did. This is where the connection comes in. The final Kapa paper was used for the block print they created out of wood (Linoleum for 7th and wood for 8th).
I read the students a Hawaiian myth and then provided a variety of books on Hawaiian legends for the students to read from. I used the artwork of local artist Dietrich Varez as an example of Hawaiian block print (he's my favorite local artist). I had the students read Hawaiian Mythology and choose a story to create a block print from. The block print replaced the watermark that is normally left behind on a kapa cloth. This helped the students connect traditional Hawaiian kapa making with oral Hawaiian legends."
"The last part of the Hawaii Art and It's People was for the 8th grade to create a 5 foot Hawaiian Tiki, 7th grade created an Outrigger Canoe, 6th grade will create Traditional Hawaiian implements, and 5th grade will create Hawaiian poi pounders - all products will be made of papier mache. The students were excited about the whole unit and it went well."
To introduce students to the Art of Hawaii and it’s connection to the Hawaiian people.
Students will learn about the cultural history of Hawaii and experience the visual art of printmaking, papermaking and sculpture as incorporated into the ancient Hawaiian art of Petroglyphs, Kapa, and Woodcarving.
Content Standard #4: Understanding the visual arts in relation to history and cultures
* Students know and compare the characteristics of artworks in various eras and cultures
Content Standard #6: Making connections between visual arts and other disciplines
* Students compare the characteristics of works in two or more art forms that share similar subject matter, historical periods, or cultural context Students describe ways in which the principles and subject matter of other disciplines taught in the school are interrelated with the visual arts
SCULPTURE – HAWAIIAN PETROGLYPHS
PowerPoint on Hawaiian Petroglyphs
Plaster of Paris
Black Tempera Paint
Petroglyphs of Hawaii
White Drawing Paper, Drawing Pencils
1. Introduce students to the culture of Hawaii. What are some art forms that you see everyday living in Hawaii? What makes Hawaii unique? How do you think the culture of the Hawaiian people influences the art you see?
2. Introduce various local Hawaii artists’ work (Pegge Hopper, Kim Taylor Reece, Wyland, Dietrich Varez, and Rocky Jensen).
3. Show students PPT on Hawaiian Petroglyphs. Discuss PPT and images. (See Southwest Petroglyphs lesson for definitions)
4. Write mock Lava recipe on the board and have students create their lava forms (recipe to come)
5. Have students sketch a petroglyph that best represents who they are: If you were standing in the middle of the petroglyphs field on the Big Island and were tempted to carve your own petroglyph what would you carve, keeping in mind that it must be made in the same form as what the ancient Hawaiian carved? What would your petroglyph say about you if someone where to see it? (Show example)
Vermiculite (You can buy this online and in some garden stores)
Plaster of Paris
Black Tempera Paint or India ink
Large Plastic Container for mixing
Various types of plastic carving tools (Could not find plastic tools. You can find Stone Sculpture Tool Set here)
Varnish or Glazes
Simulated Lava Instructions:
Prep shoe box by lining it with plastic wrap covering all edges and tape down to secure to box. Next, Mix 3 parts Vermiculite, 2 parts Plaster in Large container. Make sure that dry mixture is thoroughly mixed and should look a bit clumpy. Add 2 parts Water and let mixture sit until it stops bubbling. Stir mixture until smooth then add paint or ink. The amount of black paint or ink is a personal preference but the color of the mixture should be dark gray or smoky black. Once the paint or ink is added, the mixture will begin to clump so you need to do this part quickly. Add mixture to shoebox and spread out the mixture until even all around. Set shoebox in secure area and let dry. This will take two to three days to dry depending on weather.
As the simulated lava dries it will begin to lighten both in color and feel. Dry simulated lava should be cool to the touch, not damp, and also hard to the surface. Use plastic carving tools to carve image into the lava and use a watercolor brush to gently dust away loosen plaster on the surface and in between the image. CAUTION students to not blow away dust or particles from the simulated lava. Place newspaper under the simulated lava before carving to catch dust. Do not carve into wet simulated lava as this will crumple under the pressure of the plastic carving tools. When students are done carving their image they should apply varnish or glaze to seal the plaster.
Option: Once image is completed students might want to sponge paint over the entire surface of the simulated lava with black tempera paint to give it a darker finish, then apply varnish.
PRINTMAKING AND PAPERMAKING – KAPA
Linoleum & Pine Woodblocks (7th & 8th)
Soft-Kut Printing Blocks (5th & 6th)
Linoleum Cutters (Assorted)
Block Printing Inks (Black, Brown, White)
Papermaking Kit with DVD
4 x 4 (10 x 10 cm) cut to 2 feet (61 cm) in length
Books on Ancient Hawaiian Legends (download from Internet if not available in Library) You can also get the DVD, Hawaiian Legends: Molokai's Sacred Stones.
Drawing Paper and Drawing Pencils
Saral Transfer Paper
1. Read the Legend of Maui and the Secret of Fire. Introduce Hawaiian mythology and legends to the class. Discuss with students legends and myths that they know about Hawaii.
2. Introduce the block print artwork of Dietrich Varez.
3. Introduce Kapa stencil and connection to block printing
4. Introduce Linoleum, Wood, and Soft foam block carving. Remind students of Safety using sharp instruments.
5. Have students choose a legend or myth of Hawaii that they will carve a wood, linoleum, or soft foam plate from.
6. Have students sketch the design then transfer the design to their wood, linoleum or soft form. Provide example and demonstration of transfer design.
7. Go over craving techniques and Safety.
8. Demonstrate Printing.
9. Introduce Kapa and Papermaking.
10. Have students create their own paper with the papermaking kit then using the pounding technique of Kapa making have students bound their paper thin with meat mallet on 4 x 4 (10 x 10 cm) wood.
11. Students will then use black, brown or white to print their original design onto their simulated Kapa Paper.
4 x 4 (10 x 10 cm) wood cut to 12" (30.5 cm) in length
Handmade Paper created with Papermaking Kit with DVD
Kapa Paper Instructions:
The point of this lesson is to have students experience the art of making Hawaiian kapa making while using a shorten process. Using the technique of handmade papermaking have students place their damp handmade paper between two pieces of plastic wrap. Next, place paper on 4 x 4 (10 x 10 cm) wood block and using a meat mallet have students beat the paper lightly front top to bottom until smoothed and slightly stretched. Paper should have a light, pliable texture when done but should not be so thin that it has holes or will fall apart.
To dry paper, keep all kapa paper stacked on each other and place a heavy book on the top to keep stack weighted. Paper should be dry by morning.
Option: An iron set on low can be used to dry paper quickly if needed.
Note from Cathy on Kapa Paper:
To really get an authentic experience with pounding kapa you need to have a 4 x 4. Hawaiians used narrow logs with flat tops to pound the kapa and moved it along as the kapa stretched and thinned. I got 4 x 4s from one of my student's father who worked for a construction company and we used those and meat pounders to create our kapa paper. Students started from the top of the kapa, pounding back and forth across the kapa then moving the kapa down to the next section. The nice thing about using the 4x4 is that you know where you are on the kapa because you are only pounding in that small section. Then you move the kapa up pounding another small section. If you lose your place you know where you stopped because you can see the difference and it helps to keep the kapa consistent in thickness. The paper needs to be wet when you start pounding and it will dry on it's own by the time the student is done.
You could use a block of wood the size of the paper but you would need to instruct the students to pound from the bottom of the paper and slowly work their way up. Don't just pound the paper in any spot or fashion but rather meticulously pound across the bottom back and forth and slowly move up the paper until it is stretched and thinned to the desired product. The only thing I would be worried about when using a bigger block of wood is that students will attempt to pound the whole thing all at once. Kapa is a slow process, very rhythmic and methodical.
Cathy also suggests EAR PLUGS. I forgot to add that students might want to purchase foam ear plugs to muffle the sound of all the pounding. We went outside to pound our kapa but we still needed the ear plugs... 20 students pounding all at once is quite loud.
Alternate Printmaking Idea: Quilt Designs - Adapt Lesson for American Folk Art
Radial Balance - See lesson plan for radial balance for tips (design one square to be printed four times to make larger image). Design inspired by nature on square linoleum (reflection/mirror image along diagonal fold). Print on larger paper rotating 90 degrees each time around the square.
SCULPTURE – TIKI, OUTRIGGER CANOE, IPU, AND HAWAIIAN IMPLEMENT PAPIER MACHE
Recycled Beach Mats
Chicken Feathers (yellow, red and brown)
PPT on Hawaiian Tikis (8th), Outrigger Canoe (7th), Hawaiian Implements (6th) and Ipu (5th)
Glazes or Glasso
Drawing Paper and Drawing Pencils
1. Show PPT on Hawaiian Tikis, Outrigger Canoe, Hawaiian Implements and Ipu
2. Discussion on use and creation of Hawaiian Tikis, Outrigger Canoe, Hawaiian Implements and Ipu.
3. Brainstorm materials needed to create projects.
4. Introduce the art of Papier Mache.
5. Have students work in groups to create a sketch of their papier-mache project. Show teacher sketch and materials list before starting.
6. Demonstrate armature for Tiki, Canoe, Ipu and Implements.
7. Provide students with necessary materials to construct project.
8. Students will write an essay on their experience using contemporary art materials to create ancient Hawaiian artifacts. Students will reflect on their overall cultural art experience.
This is a 12-week course that meets twice a week for 90 minutes per grade level.
Students will be assessed on their understanding of Hawaii Art, the production of their artwork, and a written essay on the connection between modern and ancient Hawaiian art.
Note: some of these resources are no longer online. If you enter the web address into the Internet Archive, you will be able to see the archived sites.
Princess Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum:
Ancient Hawaiian Rock Carvings in Hawaii:
Ki’i Pohaku (Hawaiian
Hawaiian Myths and Legends
Myths and Legends:
Hawaiian Mythology and Religion
Good background information (no images)
The History and Craft behind Kapa:
This gives some good background information - pictures are poor quality:
Tapa Image - from About.com - Maui:
Hawaiian War Implements:
Links for Printmaker Dietrich Verez
Prints by Dietrich Varez - Pele:
Image for festival - East-Maui Taro Festival:
Dietrich Varez for created the commemorative shirt image.
Sample images on CD of his work:
Image on cover of book Pele:
Book available from bishop Museum:
Pele: The Fire Goddess - A simple, powerful, and authentic telling of the ancient myth of Pele, fire goddess of Kilauea volcano. The story is richly illustrated with Varez's magnificent block prints.
Another book is also available:
Hina - The Goddess
by Dietrich Varez, Paperbound, 56 pages, 0-912180-59-5, 11x11, 16.95
Also look for:
Maui : The Mischief Maker
More of Verez's graphic images:
More books with Verez's illustrations:
More links on Kapa Cloth
San Diego Museum of Art's lesson plan on Tapa-Inspired Pattern Painting.
Think Quest site with craft ideas (good for elementary level - 6th grade):
Plants used for Kapa (science integration) - 2 pages:
More science integration:
Good information - more links:
Some good images of Hawaiian Kapa:
Lots of links from About.com:
Siapo, also known as tapa, is one of the oldest Samoan cultural art forms.
If you have any questions regarding this lesson plan please feel free to email Catherine